<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may alter cardiac structure and function, but obesity, hypertension (HTN), or aging can induce similar abnormalities.</p><p><b>OBJECTIVES: </b>This study sought to link cardiac phenotypes in T2DM patients with clinical profiles and outcomes using cluster analysis.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>Baseline echocardiography and a composite endpoint (cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization) were evaluated in 842 T2DM patients from 2 prospective cohorts. A cluster analysis was performed on echocardiographic variables, and the association between clusters and clinical profiles and outcomes was assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 patients had the lowest left ventricular (LV) mass index and ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') ratio, had the highest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and were predominantly male with the lowest rate of obesity or HTN. Cluster 2 patients had the highest strain and highest E/e' ratio, were the oldest, were predominantly female, and had the lowest rate of isolated T2DM (without HTN or obesity). Cluster 3 patients had the highest LV mass index and volumes and the lowest LVEF and strain, were predominantly male, and shared similar age and rate of obesity and HTN as cluster 1 patients. After follow-up of 67 months (interquartile range: 40 to 87), the composite endpoint occurred in 56 of 521 patients (10.8%). Clusters 2 (hazard ratio: 2.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 4.88) and 3 (hazard ratio: 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 4.82) had a similar outcome, which was worse than cluster 1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>Cluster analysis of echocardiographic variables identified 3 different echocardiographic phenotypes of T2DM patients that were associated with distinct clinical profiles and highlighted the prognostic value of LV remodeling and subclinical dysfunction.</p>
Clinical Implications of Echocardiographic Phenotypes of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(14):1704-1716.
MeSH terms: Aged; Asymptomatic Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Cluster Analysis; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Echocardiography; Female; France; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prognosis; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Statistics as Topic; Stroke Volume; Ventricular Dysfunction, Left; Ventricular Function, Left; Ventricular Remodeling