BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may alter cardiac structure and function, but obesity, hypertension (HTN), or aging can induce similar abnormalities.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to link cardiac phenotypes in T2DM patients with clinical profiles and outcomes using cluster analysis.
METHODS: Baseline echocardiography and a composite endpoint (cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization) were evaluated in 842 T2DM patients from 2 prospective cohorts. A cluster analysis was performed on echocardiographic variables, and the association between clusters and clinical profiles and outcomes was assessed.
RESULTS: Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 patients had the lowest left ventricular (LV) mass index and ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') ratio, had the highest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and were predominantly male with the lowest rate of obesity or HTN. Cluster 2 patients had the highest strain and highest E/e' ratio, were the oldest, were predominantly female, and had the lowest rate of isolated T2DM (without HTN or obesity). Cluster 3 patients had the highest LV mass index and volumes and the lowest LVEF and strain, were predominantly male, and shared similar age and rate of obesity and HTN as cluster 1 patients. After follow-up of 67 months (interquartile range: 40 to 87), the composite endpoint occurred in 56 of 521 patients (10.8%). Clusters 2 (hazard ratio: 2.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 4.88) and 3 (hazard ratio: 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 4.82) had a similar outcome, which was worse than cluster 1.
CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of echocardiographic variables identified 3 different echocardiographic phenotypes of T2DM patients that were associated with distinct clinical profiles and highlighted the prognostic value of LV remodeling and subclinical dysfunction.