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Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing

Clinical Implications of Echocardiographic Phenotypes of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

Ernande L, Audureau E, Jellis CL, Bergerot C, Henegar C, Sawaki D, Czibik G, Volpi C, Canoui-Poitrine F, Thibault H, Ternacle J, Moulin P, Marwick TH, Derumeaux G J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(14):1704-1716.

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may alter cardiac structure and function, but obesity, hypertension (HTN), or aging can induce similar abnormalities.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to link cardiac phenotypes in T2DM patients with clinical profiles and outcomes using cluster analysis.

METHODS: Baseline echocardiography and a composite endpoint (cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization) were evaluated in 842 T2DM patients from 2 prospective cohorts. A cluster analysis was performed on echocardiographic variables, and the association between clusters and clinical profiles and outcomes was assessed.

RESULTS: Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 patients had the lowest left ventricular (LV) mass index and ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') ratio, had the highest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and were predominantly male with the lowest rate of obesity or HTN. Cluster 2 patients had the highest strain and highest E/e' ratio, were the oldest, were predominantly female, and had the lowest rate of isolated T2DM (without HTN or obesity). Cluster 3 patients had the highest LV mass index and volumes and the lowest LVEF and strain, were predominantly male, and shared similar age and rate of obesity and HTN as cluster 1 patients. After follow-up of 67 months (interquartile range: 40 to 87), the composite endpoint occurred in 56 of 521 patients (10.8%). Clusters 2 (hazard ratio: 2.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 4.88) and 3 (hazard ratio: 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 4.82) had a similar outcome, which was worse than cluster 1.

CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of echocardiographic variables identified 3 different echocardiographic phenotypes of T2DM patients that were associated with distinct clinical profiles and highlighted the prognostic value of LV remodeling and subclinical dysfunction.

MeSH terms: Aged; Asymptomatic Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Cluster Analysis; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Echocardiography; Female; France; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prognosis; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Statistics as Topic; Stroke Volume; Ventricular Dysfunction, Left; Ventricular Function, Left; Ventricular Remodeling
DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.07.792

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