Background CT can provide information regarding myocardial perfusion and expansion of the extracellular space, which is relevant to patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA). Purpose To evaluate the role of CT in the diagnosis and prognosis of CA. Materials and Methods In this prospective study (Commission National de l'Informatique et des Libertés registration no. 1431858), participants with CA, participants with nonamyloid cardiac hypertrophy (NACH), and participants without hypertrophy were included between April 2017 and December 2018. The confirmed diagnosis of CA was determined according to established criteria (ie, proven with positive bone scintigraphy or endomyocardial biopsy). All participants were imaged with dynamic CT perfusion imaging at whole-heart cardiac CT. Extracellular volume measured at CT and myocardial perfusion parameters calculated on CT perfusion maps were compared among different participant groups. Differences between continuous data were tested using the unpaired test, Mann-Whitney rank-sum test, or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results A total of 84 participants with CA, 43 participants with NACH, and 33 participants without hypertrophy were included. Participants with CA exhibited a higher value of extracellular volume measured at CT (mean, 54.7% ± 9.7 [standard deviation]) than participants with NACH (mean, 34.6% ± 9.1; < .001) and participants without hypertrophy (mean, 35.9% ± 9.9; = .001). Mean myocardial blood volume and mean myocardial blood flow were lower in participants with CA (mean myocardial blood volume: 4.05 mL/100 g of myocardium ± 0.80; mean myocardial blood flow: 73.2 mL/100 g of myocardium per minute ± 25.7) compared to participants with NACH (mean myocardial blood volume: 5.38 mL/100 g of myocardium ± 1.20, < .001; mean myocardial blood flow: 89.6 mL/100 g of myocardium per minute ± 31.3, = .007) and participants without hypertrophy (mean myocardial blood volume: 5.68 mL/100 g of myocardium ± 1.05; mean myocardial blood flow: 106.3 mL/100 g of myocardium per minute ± 29.8; < .001 for both). Extracellular volume measured at CT (hazard ratio >0.56 vs ≤0.56 = 4.2 [95% CI: 1.4, 11.8]), mean slope (hazard ratio ≤3.0 sec vs >3.0 sec = 0.2 [95% CI: 0.1, 0.8]), and time to peak (hazard ratio >20 seconds vs ≤20 seconds = 11.6 [95% CI: 1.3, 101.6]) were predictive of mortality in participants with CA. Conclusion Participants with cardiac amyloidosis exhibited an increase in extracellular volume at CT and abnormal CT perfusion parameters. Extracellular volume and several perfusion parameters were predictive of mortality. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Zimmerman in this issue.
Diagnostic Value of Extracellular Volume Quantification and Myocardial Perfusion Analysis at CT in Cardiac Amyloidosis.
MeSH terms: Aged; Amyloidosis; Biomarkers; Cardiomyopathies; Echocardiography; Female; Humans; Male; Myocardial Perfusion Imaging; Prospective Studies; Tomography, X-Ray Computed