ATTRwt-CA occurs in elderly patients and leads to severe heart failure. The disease mechanism involves cardiac and extracardiac infiltration by amyloid fibrils. The objectives of this study are to describe the frailty phenotype in patients with ATTRwt-CA and to assess the associations between frailty parameters, the severity of cardiac involvement, and the course of amyloid disease. We used multidimensional geriatric tools to prospectively assess frailty in patients with ATTRwt-CA consulting (in 2018-2019) in the French National Reference Center for Cardiac Amyloidosis. We included 36 patients (35 males; median age: 82 years (76-86). A third of the patients were categorized as NYHA class III or IV, and 39% had an LVEF below 45%. The median serum NTproBNP was 3188 (1341-8883) pg/mL. The median duration of amyloidosis was 146 months (73-216). The frequency of frailty was 50% and 33% according to the physical frailty phenotype and the Short Emergency Geriatric Assessment questionnaire, respectively. Frailty affected a large number of domains, namely autonomy (69%), balance (58%), muscle weakness (74%), malnutrition (39%), dysexecutive syndrome (72%), and depression (49%). The severity of CA was significantly associated with many frailty parameters independently of age. Balance disorders and poor mobility were also significantly associated with a longer course of amyloid disease. Frailty is frequent in patients with ATTRwt-CA. Some frailty parameters were significantly associated with a longer course of amyloid disease and CA severity. Taking into account frailty in the assessment and management of ATTRwt should improve patients' quality of life.
Frailty in Wild-Type Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis: The Tip of the Iceberg.
J Clin Med. 2021;10(15).