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Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing

Hydrocortisone use in ventilated extremely preterm infants decreased bronchopulmonary dysplasia with no effects on neurodevelopment after two years.

Renault A, Patkaï J, Dassieu G, Ayoubi MEl, Canoui-Poitrine F, Durrmeyer X Acta Paediatr. 2016;105(9):1047-55.

AIM: We assessed the outcomes of ventilated extremely premature infants treated with late postnatal corticosteroids from 2005-2008, according to permissive or restrictive policies in two centres.

METHODS: This retrospective study included inborn infants below 27 weeks of gestational age who were ventilator dependent after 14 days. Centre P permitted postnatal corticosteroids but centre R restricted their use. The effects on infants were assessed in hospital and after two years using multivariable analysis.

RESULTS: We compared 62 infants from centre P, including 92% who received hydrocortisone, and 48 infants from centre R, including 13% who received betamethasone. Infants from both centres had comparable baseline characteristics and perinatal management, but bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) rates were significantly lower in centre P (30% versus 71%, p < 0.001) and this centre was significantly associated with a younger post-conceptional age at oxygen weaning, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.45 and an aHR of 0.51at discharge. At two years of corrected age, 18% of centre P infants and 30% of centre R infants showed poor neurodevelopmental outcome (p = 0.18).

CONCLUSION: Using hydrocortisone after 14 days on ventilated extremely preterm infants was associated with decreased BPD, with no apparent effects on neurodevelopment at two years of corrected age.

MeSH terms: Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Betamethasone; Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia; Child Development; Female; Humans; Hydrocortisone; Infant, Extremely Premature; Infant, Newborn; Male; Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Respiration, Artificial; Retrospective Studies
DOI: 10.1111/apa.13487

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