BACKGROUND: To assess the diagnostic and prognosis value of myocardial native T2 measurement in the distinction between Light-chain (AL) and Transthyretin (ATTR) cardiac amyloidosis (CA).
METHODS: Forty-four patients with CA (24 AL; 20 ATTR) and 40 healthy subjects underwent 1.5 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). They all underwent T1 and T2 mapping (modified Look-Locker inversion recovery), cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. The Query Amyloid Late Enhancement (QALE) score, myocardial native T2, T1 and extra cellular volume fraction (ECV) were calculated for all patients.
RESULTS: Of the 44 patients, 36 (82%) exhibited enhancement on LGE images. Mean QALE score of AL (7.9 ± 6) and ATTR (10.5 ± 5) patients were similar (p = 0.6). Myocardial native T2 was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in AL (63.2 ± 4.7 ms) than in ATTR (56.2 ± 3.1 ms) patients, and both higher (p < 0.001) than healthy subjects (51.1 ± 3.1 ms). Myocardial native T2 was highly correlated with myocardial native T1 (Spearman's rho = 0.79; p < 0.001) and exhibited higher diagnostic performance than T1 to separate AL and ATTR patients: the area under curve (AUC) of T2 was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86-1, p < 0.001) and the AUC of T1 was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62-0.91, p = 0.03). Myocardial native T2 did not impact overall survival in patients (HR 1.03 (0.94-1.12); p = 0.53) in contrast to ECV that was the best predictor of outcome (HR 1.66 per 0.1 increase in ECV (1.24-2.22); p = 0.0006).
CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial native T2 significantly is increased in CA, especially in AL patients in comparison to ATTR patients. Myocardial native T2 does not impact survival in CA patients in contrast to ECV that was the best predictor of outcome.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registration and unique number: CNIL cardio 1778041. Date of registration: 20 December 2012.