BACKGROUND & AIMS: HIV/HCV co-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have poorer survival than HCV mono-infected patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors for survival.
METHODS: From 2006 to 2013, 55 incident HCCs among HIV+/HCV+ patients, from three ANRS cohorts, were compared with 181 HCCs in HIV-/HCV+ patients from the ANRS Cirvir cohort.
RESULTS: HIV+/HCV+ patients were younger (50 years [IQR: 47-53] vs 62 [54-70], P < 0.001), male (89% vs 63%, P < 0.001) than HIV-/HCV+ patients. At HCC diagnosis, both groups had a majority of non-responders to anti-HCV-therapy, and HIV+/HCV+ patients had more frequently known a previous cirrhosis decompensation (31% vs 14%, P = 0.005). At diagnostic imaging, there were more infiltrative forms of HCC in HIV+/HCV+ group (24% vs 14%, P < 0.001), associated with tumour portal thrombosis in 29%. During a median follow-up period of 11.96 [5.51-27] months since HCC diagnosis, a majority of palliative treatments were decided in HIV+/HCV+ patients (51% vs 19%, P < 0.001). The 1 and 2-year crude survival rates were 61% versus 78% and 47% versus 63%, P = 0.003 respectively. In a Cox model multivariate analysis adjusted for the cohort, age and sex, the most important prognostic factor for survival was the infiltrative form of the tumour (aRR: 8.10 [4.17-15.75], P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The radiological aggressiveness of the tumour is the best prognostic factor associated with poorer survival of HCC in HIV+/HCV+ patients. High α-foetoprotein level and decompensated cirrhosis are other ones. This justifies a particular attention to the detection and the management of small nodules in this high-risk population.