Anthropic nanoparticles (NP) are increasingly produced and emitted, with accompanying concerns for human health. Currently there is no global understanding as to the exact mechanistics of NP toxicity, as the traditional nanotoxicological approaches only provide a restricted overview. To address this issue, we performed an in-depth transcriptomic analysis of human macrophages exposed to a panel of welding-related metal oxide NP that we previously identified in welders lungs (FeO, FeO, MnFeO and CrOOH NP). Utilizing the specified analysis criteria (|fold change| ≥1.5, p ≤ 0.001), a total of 2164 genes were identified to be differentially expressed after THP-1 macrophage exposure to the different NP. Performing Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, for cellular content, biological processes and Swiss-Prot/Protein Information Resource keywords the data show for the first time a profound modification of gene differential expression in response to the different NP, among which MnFeO NP were the most potent to induce THP-1 macrophage activation. The transcriptomic analysis utilized in the study, provides novel insights into mechanisms that could contribute to NP-induced adverse effects and support the need for widened approaches to supplement existing knowledge of the processes underlying NP toxicity which would have not been possible using traditional nanotoxicological studies.