Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing

Changes in amyloidosis phenotype over 11 years in a cardiac amyloidosis referral centre cohort in France.

Damy T, Zaroui A, de Tournemire M, Kharoubi M, Gounot R, Galat A, Guendouz S, Funalot B, Itti E, Roulin L, Audard V, Fanen P, Leroy V, Poulot E, Belhadj K, Mallet S, Chadah GDeep Singh, Planté-Bordeneuve V, Gendre T, Chevalier X, Guignard S, Béquignon E, Bartier S, Folliguet T, Lemonier F, Audureau E, Tixier D, Canoui-Poitrine F, Lefaucheur J-P, Souvannanorath S, Authier F-J, Maupou S, Hittinger L, Molinier-Frenkel V, David J-P, Broussier A, Oghina S, Teiger E Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2023;116(10):433-446.

BACKGROUND: Early cardiac amyloidosis (CA) diagnosis enables patients to access effective treatments for better long-term outcomes, yet it remains under-recognised, misdiagnosed and inadequately managed.

AIM: To reduce diagnostic delays, we aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and changes over an 11-year period.

METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of all patients referred to the Henri-Mondor Hospital for suspected CA.

RESULTS: Overall, 3194 patients were identified and 3022 were included and analysed. Our patients came from varied ethnic backgrounds, and more than half (55.2%) had confirmed CA. Over 11 years, referrals increased 4.4-fold, mostly from cardiologists. Notably, wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) became the predominant diagnosis, with referrals increasing 15-fold from 20 in 2010-2012 to 308 in 2019-2020. The number of amyloid light chain (AL) diagnoses increased, whilst variant transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) numbers remained relatively stable. Concerning disease severity, AL patients presented more frequently with severe cardiac involvement whereas an increasing number of ATTRwt patients presented with National Amyloid Centre stage I (22.0% in 2013-2014 to 45.9% in 2019-2020). Lastly, among patients diagnosed with ATTRv in 2019-2020, 83.9% had ATTR Val122Ile cardiac phenotype.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that increasing cardiologist awareness and referrals have increased CA diagnoses. With improved awareness and non-invasive diagnostic techniques, more patients with ATTRwt with milder disease and more ATTRv Val122Ile mutations are being referred and diagnosed. Although more AL cases are being recognised, patients are diagnosed with severe cardiac involvement.

DOI: 10.1016/j.acvd.2023.07.003