AIMS: Multimodal imaging has allowed cardiac amyloidosis (CA) to be increasingly recognised as a treatable cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, but its prognosis remains poor due to late diagnosis. To assess the left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF) patterns in a large contemporary CA cohort according to the current recommendations and to identify their determinants.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a monocentric, observational study on a cohort of CA patients from a tertiary CA referral centre. Diastolic function was analysed using standard echocardiography and clinical, laboratory and survival parameters were collected. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with one of the three main type of CA were included: 41% had grade III diastolic dysfunction (restrictive mitral pattern), 25% had grade II diastolic dysfunction, and 25% had grade I diastolic dysfunction; 9% were unclassified. No difference was found between the main CA types. After multivariate analyses, grades II and III were independently associated with dyspnoea, elevated NT-proBNP, cardiac infiltration and systolic dysfunction (global longitudinal strain). Grade I patients had a better prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: All LVDF patterns can be observed in CA. One quarter of CA patients have grade I LVDF, reflecting the emergence of earlier stage-related phenotypes with a better prognosis.