OBJECTIVES: Tafamidis is an effective treatment for transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM), this study aimed to determine whether there is a differential effect between variant transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) and wild-type transthyretin (ATTRwt).
BACKGROUND: ATTR-CM is a progressive, fatal disorder resulting from mutations in the ATTRv or the deposition of denatured ATTRwt.
METHODS: In pre-specified analyses from ATTR-ACT (Tafamidis in Transthyretin Cardiomyopathy Clinical Trial), baseline characteristics, all-cause mortality, and change from baseline to month 30 in 6-min walk test distance and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary score were compared in patients with ATTRwt and ATTRv.
RESULTS: There were 335 patients with ATTRwt (201 tafamidis, 134 placebo) and 106 with ATTRv (63 tafamidis, 43 placebo) enrolled in ATTR-ACT. Patients with ATTRwt (vs. ATTRv) had less advanced disease at baseline and a lower rate of disease progression over the study. The reduction in all-cause mortality with tafamidis compared with placebo was not different between ATTRwt (hazard ratio: 0.706 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.474 to 1.052]; p = 0.0875) and ATTRv (hazard ratio: 0.690 [95% CI: 0.408 to 1.167]; p = 0.1667). Tafamidis was associated with a similar reduction (vs. placebo) in the decline in 6-min walk test distance in ATTRwt (mean ± SE difference from placebo, 77.14 ± 10.78; p < 0.0001) and ATTRv (79.61 ± 29.83 m; p = 0.008); and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary score in ATTRwt (12.72 ± 2.10; p < 0.0001) and ATTRv (18.18 ± 7.75; p = 0.019).
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-specified analyses from ATTR-ACT confirm the poor prognosis of untreated ATTRv-related cardiomyopathy compared with ATTRwt, but show the reduction in mortality and functional decline with tafamidis treatment is similar in both disease subtypes. (Safety and Efficacy of Tafamidis in Patients With Transthyretin Cardiomyopathy [ATTR-ACT]; NCT01994889).