Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing

Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Opportunistic Infections after Kidney Allograft Transplantation in the Era of Modern Immunosuppression: A Monocentric Cohort Study.

Attias P, Melica G, Boutboul D, De Castro N, Audard V, Stehlé T, Gaube G, Fourati S, Botterel F, Fihman V, Audureau E, Grimbert P, Matignon M J Clin Med. 2019;8(5).

Epidemiology of opportunistic infections (OI) after kidney allograft transplantation in the modern era of immunosuppression and the use of OI prevention strategies are poorly described. We retrospectively analyzed a single-center cohort on kidney allograft adult recipients transplanted between January 2008 and December 2013. The control group included all kidney recipients transplanted in the same period, but with no OI. We analyzed 538 kidney transplantations (538 patients). The proportion of OI was 15% (80 and 72 patients). OI occurred 12.8 (6.0-31.2) months after transplantation. Viruses were the leading cause ( = 54, (10%)), followed by fungal ( = 15 (3%)), parasitic ( = 6 (1%)), and bacterial ( = 5 (0.9%)) infections. Independent risk factors for OI were extended criteria donor (2.53 (1.48-4.31), = 0.0007) and BK viremia (6.38 (3.62-11.23), < 0.0001). High blood lymphocyte count at the time of transplantation was an independent protective factor (0.60 (0.38-0.94), = 0.026). OI was an independent risk factor for allograft loss (2.53 (1.29-4.95), = 0.007) but not for patient survival. Post-kidney transplantation OIs were mostly viral and occurred beyond one year after transplantation. Pre-transplantation lymphopenia and extended criteria donor are independent risk factors for OI, unlike induction therapy, hence the need to adjust immunosuppressive regimens to such transplant candidates.

DOI: 10.3390/jcm8050594