BACKGROUND: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of F-NaF PET/MRI in patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis (CA).
METHODS: Twenty-seven consecutive patients underwent myocardial PET 1 hour after injection of 4 MBq/kg F-NaF with simultaneous MRI including cine-MRI, T1 and T2 mapping, first-pass and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). F-NaF uptake was measured visually and semi-quantitatively by calculating myocardium-to-blood pool (M/B) ratios. CA was confirmed histologically.
RESULTS: Transthyretin (TTR)-CA was diagnosed in 16 patients, light-chain (AL)-CA in 7, and no-CA in 4. Visual interpretation of F-NaF images revealed a relative increase in myocardial uptake in only 3 patients, all with TTR CA, and a relative decrease in 13, including 7 AL CA, 3 no-CA, and 3 TTR CA. M/B ratios were significantly higher in TTR CA (1.00 ± 0.12) than in AL CA (0.81 ± 0.06, P = 0.001) or in no-CA (0.73 ± 0.16, P = 0.006). The optimal M/B cut-off to distinguish TTR CA from AL CA was ≥ 0.90 (Fischer, P = 0.0005). By comparison, classification of patients using Tc-HMDP heart-to-mediastinum ratios with the previously published cut-off ≥ 1.21 reached higher significance (P < 0.0001). Among MRI parameters, myocardial T1, LGE score, and extracellular volume were higher in CA than in no-CA patients, 1409 ± 76 vs 1278 ± 35 ms (P = 0.004), 10.35 ± 5.30 vs 3.50 ± 3.42 (P = 0.03), and 46 ± 10 vs 33 ± 8 % (P = 0.01), respectively.
CONCLUSION: F-NaF PET/MRI shows good diagnostic performance when semi-quantification is used. However, contrast is low and visual interpretation may be challenging in routine. PET/MRI could constitute a one-stop-shop evaluation of amyloid load and cardiac function in patients needing rapid work-up.