Poor adherence to chronic disease therapy is a critical global problem that negatively effects the long-term therapy for chronic diseases, resulting in negative population health and economic effects. The WHO multidimensional model proposed a systems-based approach for improving adherence to chronic disease therapy. In the current study, the WHO five-dimension framework was used to evaluate factors among, chronic-disease patients in the United Arab Emirates. We show that patient's understanding of disease, involvement in treatment decision, age more than 40 years, time spent with physician and fear of how patients were perceived by others were the most predictive factors associated with a high ability to self-manage a chronic disease. Sociocultural factors have an indirect impact on disease self-management.