BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at high risk for invasive pneumococcal diseases. The immunological efficacy of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) followed by a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is poorly documented in adults with SCD.
METHODS: This was a randomized open-labeled phase 2 study of the immunogenicity of PCV13 at week 0, followed by PPSV23 at week 4, compared with PPSV23 alone at week 4 in adult patients with SCD. The proportion of responders (4-fold increase in serotype-specific immunoglobulin [Ig] G antibodies) to ≥10 shared serotypes was assessed at week 8. Secondary end points were (1) geometric mean titers, (2) responders to 0-1, 2-5, 6-9, or 10-12 serotypes, (3) pneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity, and (4) response durability at weeks 24 and 96.
RESULTS: In total, 128 patients were randomized in the PCV13/PPSV23 (n = 63) or PPSV23-alone groups (n = 65). At week 8, 24.56% and 8.20% of patients from the PCV13/PPSV23 and PPSV23 groups, respectively, reached the primary end point (P = .02). These numbers were 36.2% and 8.7% for opsonophagocytic activity responders (P = .002). A combined PCV13/PPSV23 strategy improved the breadth of responses to 0-1, 2-5, 6-9, or 10-12 serotypes with 15.8%, 35%, 24.6%, and 24.6% versus 52.5%, 31%, 8%, and 8% in the PPSV23 group. At week 96, geometric mean titers were significantly higher in the PCV13/PPSV23 than in the PPSV23-alone group for 5 serotypes (4, 14, 19A, 19F, 23F).
CONCLUSIONS: A PCV13/PPSV23 regimen improved the breadth and magnitude of antibody responses against a large range of pneumococcal serotypes in adults with SCD. The sustainability of the immune response requires recall strategies.Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02274415.