BACKGROUND: Information on the epidemiology of uncommon EGFR mutations including exon 20 insertions amongst non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is lacking.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pragmatic literature review (PLR) and meta-analysis was to generate robust prevalence and incidence estimates based on ranges of exon 20 insertion mutations reported in the literature.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE, Embase, congresses and reference lists for articles published from 2013 in key European countries of interest (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom) were performed. Articles were reviewed against pre-specified criteria and their quality was appraised using a published checklist. Prevalence estimates were synthesised by random-effects meta-analyses.
RESULTS: Eighty unique studies of moderate-to-high quality were included in the PLR. The meta-analysed prevalence for EGFR mutations was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.0, 14.1) in any stage NSCLC and 14.8% (12.8, 17.1) in advanced/metastatic NSCLC. The prevalence of exon 20 insertions was 0.7% (0.4, 1.1) in any stage NSCLC and 6.1% (4.0, 9.4) in any stage EGFR-positive NSCLC. Mutation status was primarily measured using direct sequencing or a combination of methods. One study reporting exon 20 insertions in advanced/metastatic disease was identified, which reported a prevalence of 0.5% in overall NSCLC and 4.0% in EGFR-positive NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations are rare in NSCLC. There is a high unmet need in patients with exon 20 insertions, including effective therapies. Prospective cohort studies are needed to better clinically characterise these patients.