Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing

Prognosis of hospitalised adult patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

Celante H, Oubaya N, Fourati S, Beaune S, Khellaf M, Casalino E, Ricard J-D, Vieillard-Baron A, Heming N, Dessap AMekontso, de Montmollin E, Benghanem S, Epaillard N, Layese R, de Prost N Clin Microbiol Infect. 2023;29(7):943.e1-943.e8.

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common agent of viral respiratory infections with significant morbidity and mortality in adults. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation and to describe the characteristics of patients who received ribavirin.

METHODS: A retrospective multicentre observational cohort study was conducted in Great Paris area hospitals, including patients hospitalised between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2019 for documented RSV infection. Data were extracted from the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris Health Data Warehouse. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality.

RESULTS: One thousand one hundred sixty-eight patients were hospitalised for RSV infection, including 288 (24.6%) patients who required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 75 (63-85) years, and 54% (n = 631/1168) of them were women. In-hospital mortality was 6.6% (n = 77/1168) in the whole cohort and 12.8% (n = 37/288) in ICU patients. Factors associated with hospital mortality were age >85 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.29, 95% confidence interval [2.47-15.98]), acute respiratory failure (aOR = 2.83 [1.19-6.72]), non-invasive (aOR = 12.60 [1.41-112.36]), and invasive mechanical ventilation support (aOR = 30.13 [3.17-286.27]) and neutropenia (aOR = 13.19 [3.27-53.27]). Factors associated with invasive mechanical ventilation were chronic heart (aOR = 1.98 [1.20-3.26]) or respiratory failure (aOR = 2.83 [1.67-4.80]), and co-infection (aOR = 2.62 [1.60-4.30]). Patients who were treated with ribavirin were significantly younger than others (62 [55-69] vs. 75 [63-86] years; p < 0.001), more frequently males (n = 34/48 [70.8%] vs. n = 503/1120 [44.9%]; p 0.001), and almost exclusively immunocompromised (n = 46/48 [95.8%] vs. n = 299/1120 [26.7%]; p < 0.001).

DISCUSSION: The mortality rate of patients hospitalised with RSV infections was 6.6%. Twenty-five per cent of the patients required ICU admission.

MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Antiviral Agents; Female; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Prognosis; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections; Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human; Retrospective Studies; Ribavirin
DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2023.03.003