OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the prognostic value of inflammatory biomarkers extracted from pretreatment peripheral blood and [18F]-FDG PET for estimating outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with first-line immunotherapy (IT) or chemotherapy (CT).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated 111 patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent baseline [18F]-FDG PET/CT before IT or CT between 2016 and 2019. Several blood inflammatory indices were evaluated: derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). FDG-PET inflammatory parameters were extracted from lymphoid tissues (BLR and SLR: bone marrow or spleen-to-Liver SUVmax ratios). Association with survival and relationships between parameters were evaluated using Cox prediction models and Spearman's correlation respectively.
RESULTS: Overall, 90 patients were included (IT:CT) (51:39pts). Median PFS was 8.6:6.6 months and median OS was not reached:21.2 months. In the IT cohort, high dNLR (>3), high SII (≥1,270) and high SLR (0.77) were independent statistically significant prognostic factors for one-year progression-free survival (1y-PFS) and two-year overall survival (2y-OS) on multivariable analysis. In the CT cohort, high BLR (≥0.80) and high dNLR (>3) were associated with shorter 1y-PFS (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.9) and 2y-OS (HR 3.4, 95CI 1.1-10.3) respectively, on multivariable analysis. Finally, BLR significantly but moderately correlated with most blood-based inflammatory indices (CRP, PLR and SII) while SLR was only associated with CRP (p < 0.01 for all).
CONCLUSION: In advanced NSCLC patients undergoing first-line IT or CT, pretreatment blood and inflammatory factors evaluating the spleen or bone marrow on [18F]-FDG PET/CT provided prognostic information for 1y-PFS and 2y-OS. These biomarkers should be further evaluated for potential clinical application.