The relative contributions of occupational and community sources of COVID-19 among health-care workers (HCWs) are still subject to debate. In a cohort study at a 2814-bed tertiary medical center (five hospitals) in the Paris area of France, we assessed the proportion of hospital-acquired cases among staff and identified risk factors. Between May 2020 and June 2021, HCWs were invited to complete a questionnaire on their COVID-19 risk factors. RT-PCR and serology test results were retrieved from the virology department. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to account for clustering by hospital. The prevalence of COVID-19 was 15.6% (n = 213/1369 respondents) overall, 29.7% in the geriatric hospitals, and 56.8% of the infections were hospital-acquired. On multivariable analyses adjusted for COVID-19 incidence and contact in the community, a significantly higher risk was identified for staff providing patient care (especially nursing assistants), staff from radiology/functional assessment units and stretcher services, and staff working on wards with COVID-19 clusters among patients or HCWs. The likelihood of infection was greater in geriatric wards than in intensive care units. The presence of significant occupational risk factors after adjustment for community exposure is suggestive of a high in-hospital risk and emphasizes the need for stronger preventive measures-especially in geriatric settings. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04386759.