Clinical Epidemiology and Ageing

Self-Management Analysis in Chronic Conditions (SMACC) checklist: an international consensus-based tool to develop, compare and evaluate self-management support programmes.

Moreels T, Cruyt E, De Baets S, Andries L, Arts-Tielemans M, Rodriguez-Bailon M, Bergström A, Boete K, Bormans I, Costa U, Declercq H, Dekelver S, Dekyvere V, Delooz E, Engels C, Helderweirt S, Jarrey M, Lenaerts A, Leyman A, Lim KHean, Meynen L, Satink T, Schoenmakers F, Senn D, Slembrouck L, Van Meensel E, Vangenechten D, Van Paepeghem B, De Vriendt P, Van de Velde D BMJ Open. 2023;13(12):e075676.

OBJECTIVES: The Self-Management Analysis in Chronic Conditions (SMACC) checklist was developed as a guidance tool to support the development, comparison and evaluation of self-management support programmes for persons with a chronic condition. The checklist was based on a previously performed concept analysis of self-management. The aim of this study was to validate its content using an international Delphi study and to deliver a final version.

DESIGN: A two-round Delphi study was conducted between October 2022 and January 2023. Using the researchers' networks, professionals with research or clinical expertise in self-management support and chronic conditions were recruited via online purposive snowball sampling. Participants were asked to score each item of the checklist (16 items total) on 3 content validity indicators: (1) clarity and comprehensibility, (2) relevance and importance and (3) degree of alignment with the overall goal of the checklist to promote adequate and comprehensive self-management support programmes. A consensus threshold of 75% agreement was used. The participants were also asked general questions about the checklist as a whole and were asked to provide feedback considering its refinement.

RESULTS: Fifty-four professionals with an average 14.5 years of experience participated in round 1, 48 with an average 12.5 years of experience participated in round 2. The majority of professionals were from Western Europe. For the majority of items consensus was reached after round 1. In round 2, 3 of the 4 remaining items reached consensus, 1 last item was retained based on highly recurring feedback.

CONCLUSIONS: The SMACC checklist was considered a valid and comprehensive tool to aid the development, evaluation and comparison of self-management support programmes. It was acknowledged as a useful instrument to supplement existing frameworks and was seen as feasible to implement in both research and clinical settings. Further validation in the field, with input from patients and peer experts, will be valuable.

MeSH terms: Checklist; Chronic Disease; Consensus; Delphi Technique; Humans; Self-Management
DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2023-075676